How Chaos Theory Changed the Universe

Since the age of Descartes, science has put all of its eggs in the basket of determinism, the idea that with accurate enough measurements any aspect of the universe could be predicted. But the universe, it turns out, is not so tidy.

It was Descartes who managed to separate the mind from the body. In his Meditationes, Descartes draws the distinction between the body and the mind, two separate yet intertwined aspects of humankind that meet and interact in the pineal gland, Descartes thought. Up to this point, the two were generally inseparable and were simply all one.